The House of Hanover (German: Haus von Hannover) is a German royal dynasty that rules the Electorate of Hanover and also provides monarchs for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Formally, the household is known as the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover line, because it was originally a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Relation to the Holy Roman Empire
Established in 1635, the House of Hanover ruled an electorate under the Holy Roman Empire. The name of the electorate was Brunswick-Lüneburg, which would later be elevated to a Kingdom in 1814 following the end of the Third Coalition in 1804. While being Prince-Electors, the Hanoverians also enjoyed the high positions of Arch-Treasurer and Arch-Bannerbearer of the Holy Roman Empire, thus making the Hanoverian electors and monarchs hold an ample amount of influence on mainland Europe. These positions remained until the Holy Roman Empire itself was dissolved and the territories divided amongst the electors. Great Britain's land holding, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was elevated to a Kingdom and was officially renamed the Kingdom of Hanover.
Ascension to the Throne
Upon the death of Anne, Queen of Great Britain, an immediate succession crisis was recognized because the Queen had died childless. Among her possible successors were both Catholics and Protestants; however, due to the Acts of Supremacy passed first under King Henry VIII and a second time under Queen Elizabeth I, and the Act of Settlement passed during the reign of Queen Anne, no Catholic may take the throne. Because of this, the Ascension Council had reached out to George I Louis, who would succeed Anne as King of Great Britain. From then on, the House of Hanover ruled Great Britain, and eventually the United Kingdom until the reign of Queen Victoria.
Catholic Pretenders to the Throne
Upon George I's ascension to the throne, there were two factions: the Hanoverian-Protestant supports and the Stuart-Catholic supporters. Those who supported the Hanoverian Protestants supported George I, and those who supported the Stuart Catholics supported James Francis Edward Stuart. George I took the necessary precautions for the ascension of George II, his son, to take place following his death. He even had the coronation anthem Zadok the Priest written to encourage the population to support the new king.